Protein Facts

A popular public opinion seems to be that the body can only process a certain amount of protein per meal, as if there's a magic number inside your belly that tracks protein intake. This is not entirely true. While I wouldn't recommend eating 100 grams of protein at every meal, the body will process whatever you feed it, albeit not always optimally. You're going to digest all the protein you eat, but more isn't always better. Once you turn on protein synthesis and initiate the muscle-building process, you can't turn it on "more" in one meal. Roughly 30 grams of protein per meal across multiple meals will actually help you boost protein synthesis many times over the course of a day. It will probably be easier on your digestive system, too!
Yes, but only to some degree. Not all dietary protein you eat goes toward protein synthesis. Once you eat enough protein to drive protein synthesis, your body will oxidize protein for energy. Driving your protein intake far beyond the realm of 30-35 percent of your daily calories probably won't provide additional muscle-building benefits, but it will cut into your fat and carbohydrate intake, which may actually hinder your goals. This isn't exact, but eating at least 1 gram of protein per pound per day should cover your bases.
If protein is a building block for muscle, then you will never gain fat from overeating protein, right? Sorry, Timmy, but the weight can definitely creep on if your caloric equation shifts toward a surplus. While it is harder for protein to convert into fat than its other macronutrient buddies, if you eat way more than your body needs—no matter what it is—the excess could go into fat deposits. Plus, as your protein intake goes up, protein oxidation increases, which means you'll burn fewer carbs or fats for fuel. Beyond that, protein quality is measured in a variety of ways, including biological value, net protein utilization, and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acids Score (PDCAAS). The PDCAAS test is the FDA's preferred method of determining protein quality. A PDCAAS value of 1 is the best possible score. Casein, whey, egg white, and soy protein all fall into this category, so they're all stellar protein sources.
Denaturing is the process by which proteins essentially "unfold" and lose biological function. Typically, proteins can withstand a certain temperature before this happens. This nugget of truth has led folks to believe that incorporating protein powders into homemade recipes—such as protein bars, muffins, or other baked food—and cooking them will denature the proteins, rendering them ineffective. Yes, the protein does get altered from the cooking heat, but the body will absorb the constituent amino acids just the same. The nutritional value remains constant, as well. In this regard, cooking protein powder is no different than cooking a piece of chicken, and who would want to eat raw chicken? You may now let out a sigh of relief and continue your regularly scheduled protein bake session.
According to a study published in the "American Journal of Kidney Disease," anyone who is currently suffering from chronic kidney disease should avoid high-protein diets. For otherwise healthy folk, your high protein intake should not pose a threat to your kidneys; make sure to keep your total daily protein consumption reasonable and consume sufficient water to counteract the water loss. Check with your doctor first if you are concerned about this.
A period of heavy caloric restriction will increase your need for protein. People who are under great stress, such as people recovering from illness or a serious injury, will also need a bump in protein consumption. As you lower your total caloric intake, there is a greater chance that incoming protein will be used as a fuel source rather than for muscle-building. On a low-calorie diet, it's even more critical that you eat at least 1 gram of protein per pound daily to maintain muscle mass.
It's easy to assume that, since weightlifters aim to build strength and muscle, they have a greater need for protein than endurance athletes. This is one of those questions that's best answered on a case-by-case basis. On one hand, endurance athletes who train heavy for hours on end may require more protein simply because their energy needs are so high. This would be especially true if they are keen on losing fat. On the other hand, competitive lifters like people in strongman competitions need extraordinary amount of calories and protein.
First, whey protein is a higher quality protein than regular whey, milk, egg or soy. And because whey is packed full of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) - leucine, isoleucine, valine - it may help preserve lean muscle tissue between workouts or when dieting. Second, whey protein is low in carbs, fat and calories which makes it perfect for dieters. Many use it first thing in the morning, between meals or right before bed. Others use it as a post-workout drink and mix it with carbohydrates like juice, fresh fruit or a high-carb powder. Third, whey digests easier and much faster than all other proteins.  Fourth, since most of the lactose has been removed, it's popular with lactose-intolerant individuals. Finally, it tastes pretty good, even in water. Most brands mix instantly with a spoon, making them popular at the office. All types of people drink whey, from young to old, active to inactive.
Can't decide which one to try? Here's some help. Whey concentrate and isolates go through a process to remove most of the carbs, fat and lactose from "regular unprocessed whey" from whole milk. This process is called "ion exchange" or "filtering." Both result in an almost pure protein. A "concentrate" is 80% protein and an "isolate" is 90% protein. There is no other real difference between the two, except that isolates go through an extra filtering step to remove more fat and carbs. The protein quality is identical. Concentrate Advantages Concentrates are more economical per gram of protein. They have a low lactose level that is well tolerated by most lactose-sensitive people. They have trivial amounts of fat and carbs relative to your overall nutrient intake. This is our best-selling category of whey! Isolate Advantages Isolates are virtually fat-free for those wishing to eliminate as much fat from their diet as possible. They are typically lactose free for those few individuals who are very sensitive to the low-lactose levels found in whey concentrates. Isolates tend to taste slightly better than concentrates, too, yet their consistency is a little thinner, without the fat.  
The answer is simple, but read this carefully. The 80% refers to the concentration level of the protein that is in the ingredient - whey protein concentrate. If a product is called 100% whey protein, this usually refers to the protein source used, meaning only whey protein is used, not egg, soy or milk protein. Therefore, a product that is named 100% whey protein (if it's from a concentrate) would contain about 80% protein.
Good question. Every protein powder, whether it's whey, soy or something else, has moisture. In fact, 5% of the total formula is water. Another 3-5% is made up of naturally occurring minerals in whey. The remaining 10-12% is a combination of carbs and fat.
You need to take into account the flavoring system, which adds a small percentage of fat or carbs. Also, formulas with glutamine peptides, which are half carbs, can contribute to the carb category.
To achieve a rich chocolate taste, cocoa must be added along with a chocolate flavor. Vanilla only requires flavor for a good taste. The added cocoa, about 1 gram per serving, displaces some of the protein in a formula. Various brands deal with this lower protein situation in one of two ways. Either their chocolate product will have slightly less protein and slightly more carbs, or the serving size is increased to make the protein level constant between flavors, but there will be fewer servings.